SECTION 1. INHERENT RIGHTS. This constitution is
dedicated to the principles that all persons have a natural
right to life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness, and the
enjoyment of the rewards of their own industry; that all
persons are equal and entitled to equal rights,
opportunities, and protection under the law; and that all
persons have corresponding obligations to the people and to
SECTION 2. SOURCE OF GOVERNMENT. All political power
is inherent in the people. All government originates with
the people, is founded upon their will only, and is
instituted solely for the good of the people as a whole.
SECTION 3. CIVIL RIGHTS. No person is to be denied
the enjoyment of any civil or political right because of
race, color, creed, sex, or national origin. The legislature
shall implement this section.
SECTION 4. FREEDOM OF RELIGION. No law shall be made
respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the
free exercise thereof.
SECTION 5. FREEDOM OF SPEECH. Every person may freely
speak, write, and publish on all subjects, being responsible
for the abuse of that right.
SECTION 6. ASSEMBLY; PETITION. The right of the
people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government
shall never be abridged.
SECTION 7. DUE PROCESS. No person shall be deprived
of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.
The right of all persons to fair and just treatment in the
course of legislative and executive investigations shall not
SECTION 8. GRAND JURY. No person shall be held to
answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on
a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases
arising in the armed forces in time of war or public danger.
Indictment may be waived by the accused. In that case the
prosecution shall be by information. The grand jury shall
consist of at least twelve citizens, a majority of whom
concurring may return an indictment. The power of grand
juries to investigate and make recommendations concerning
the public welfare or safety shall never be suspended.
SECTION 9. JEOPARDY AND SELF-INCRIMINATION. No person
shall be put in jeopardy twice for the same offense. No
person shall be compelled in any criminal proceeding to be a
witness against himself.
SECTION 10. TREASON. Treason against the State
consists only in levying war against it, or in adhering to
its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be
convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two
witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open
SECTION 11. RIGHTS OF ACCUSED. In all criminal
prosecutions, the accused shall have the right to a speedy
and public trial, by an impartial jury of twelve, except
that the legislature may provide for a jury of not more than
twelve nor less than six in courts not of record. The
accused is entitled to be informed of the nature and cause
of the accusation; to be released on bail, except for
capital offenses when the proof is evident or the
presumption great; to be confronted with the witnesses
against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining
witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of
counsel for his defense.
SECTION 12. CRIMINAL ADMINISTRATION. Excessive bail
shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor
cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Criminal
administration shall be based upon the following: the need
for protecting the public, community condemnation of the
offender, the rights of victims of crimes, restitution from
the offender, and the principle of reformation.
SECTION 13. HABEAS CORPUS. The privilege of the writ
of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in
cases of rebellion or actual or imminent invasion, the
public safety requires it.
SECTION 14. SEARCHES AND SEIZURES. The right of the
people to be secure in their persons, houses and other
property, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches
and seizures, shall not be violated. No warrants shall
issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or
affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be
searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
SECTION 15. PROHIBITED STATE ACTION. No bill of
attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. No law
impairing the obligation of contracts, and no law making any
irrevocable grant of special privileges or immunities shall
be passed. No conviction shall work corruption of blood or
forfeiture of estate.
SECTION 16. CIVIL SUITS; TRIAL BY JURY. In civil
cases where the amount in controversy exceeds two hundred
fifty dollars, the right of trial by a jury of twelve is
preserved to the same extent as it existed at common law.
The legislature may make provision for a verdict by not less
than three-fourths of the jury and, in courts not of record,
may provide for a jury of not less than six or more than
SECTION 17. IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT. There shall be no
imprisonment for debt. This section does not prohibit civil
arrest of absconding debtors.
SECTION 18. EMINENT DOMAIN. Private property shall
not be taken or damaged for public use without just
SECTION 19. RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS. A well-
regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free
state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall
not be infringed. The individual right to keep and bear arms
shall not be denied or infringed by the State or a political
subdivision of the State.
SECTION 20. QUARTERING SOLDIERS. No member of the
armed forces shall in time of peace be quartered in any
house without the consent of the owner or occupant, or in
time of war except as prescribed by law. The military shall
be in strict subordination to the civil power.
SECTION 21. CONSTRUCTION. The enumeration of rights
in this constitution shall not impair or deny others
retained by the people.
SECTION 22. RIGHT OF PRIVACY. The right of the people
to privacy is recognized and shall not be infringed. The
legislature shall implement this section.
SECTION 23. RESIDENT PREFERENCE. This constitution
does not prohibit the State from granting preferences, on
the basis of Alaska residence, to residents of the State
over nonresidents to the extent permitted by the
Constitution of the United States.
SECTION 24. RIGHTS OF CRIME VICTIMS. Crime victims,
as defined by law, shall have the following rights as
provided by law: the right to be reasonably protected from
the accused through the imposition of appropriate bail or
conditions of release by the court; the right to confer with
the prosecution; the right to be treated with dignity,
respect, and fairness during all phases of the criminal and
juvenile justice process; the right to timely disposition of
the case following the arrest of the accused; the right to
obtain information about and be allowed to be present at all
criminal or juvenile proceedings where the accused has the
right to be present; the right to be allowed to be heard,
upon request, at sentencing, before or after conviction or
juvenile adjudication, and at any proceeding where the
accused's release from custody is considered; the right to
restitution from the accused; and the right to be informed,
upon request, of the accused's escape or release from
custody before or after conviction or juvenile