In standard recipes, one of the following may be substituted for one cup of wheat flour: 1 cup corn flour 3/4 cup coarse cornmeal 7/8 cup rice flour 1 scant cup fine cornmeal 5/8 cup potato flour There are some problems in the use of substitutes for wheat flour. The following suggestions will improve the eating quality of the final product: 1. Rice flour and cornmeal tend to have a grainy texture. A smoother texture may be obtained by mixing the rice flour or cornmeal with the liquid called for in the recipe, bringing this mixture to a boil, and cooling it before adding the other ingredients. 2. Soy flour must always be used in combination with another flour, not as the only flour in a recipe. It has no gluten, and by itself has an unappealing taste. 3. When using other than wheat flour in baking, longer and slower baking time is required. This is particularly true when the product is made without milk and eggs. 4. Because they have little or no gluten, substitutes for wheat flour do not make satisfactory yeast breads. 5. Muffins or biscuits, when made with other than wheat flour, are of better texture if baked in small sizes. 6. Dryness is common characteristic of cakes made with flours other than wheat flours. Moisture may be preserved by frosting or storing cakes in closed containers. 1993-jf Cooperative Extension Service University of Illinois
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