In standard recipes, one of the following may be
substituted for one cup of wheat flour:

    1 cup corn flour
    3/4 cup coarse cornmeal
    7/8 cup rice flour
    1 scant cup fine cornmeal
    5/8 cup potato flour

    There are some problems in the use of substitutes for
wheat flour.  The following suggestions will improve the
eating quality of the final product:

1.  Rice flour and cornmeal tend to have a grainy texture. 
A smoother texture       may be obtained by mixing the rice
flour or cornmeal with the liquid      called for in the
recipe, bringing this mixture to a boil, and cooling it     
before adding the other ingredients.

2.  Soy flour must always be used in combination with
another flour, not as    the only flour in a recipe.  It has
no gluten, and by itself has an        unappealing taste.

3.  When using other than wheat flour in baking, longer and
slower baking      time is required.  This is particularly
true when the product is made     without milk and eggs.

4.  Because they have little or no gluten, substitutes for
wheat flour do not       make satisfactory yeast breads.

5.  Muffins or biscuits, when made with other than wheat
flour, are of better     texture if baked in small sizes.

6.  Dryness is common characteristic of cakes made with
flours other than  wheat flours.  Moisture may be preserved
by frosting or storing cakes in   closed containers.


Cooperative Extension Service
University of Illinois

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